|All about hepatitis causes of hepatitis risk factors for hepatitis diagnosis of hepatitis symptoms of hepatitis treatment for hepatitis prevention of hepatitis viral hepatitis autoimmune hepatitis causes of autoimmune hepatitis symptoms of autoimmune hepatitis diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis autoimmune hepatitis cure alcoholic hepatitis causes of alcoholic hepatitis symptoms of alcoholic hepatitis diagnosis of alcoholic hepatitis treatment for alcoholic hepatitis complications of alcoholic hepatitis hepatitis A causes of hepatitis A hepatitis A risk factors hepatitis A symptoms diagnosis of type A hepatitis hepatitis A treatment prevention of hepatitis A hepatitis A vaccination hepatitis B causes of hepatitis B hepatitis B risk factors symptoms of hepatitis B infection hepatitis B diagnosis hepatitis B treatment treatment for chronic hepatitis B prevention of hepatitis B hepatitis B vaccination Hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) hepatitis C hepatitis C causes risk factors for hepatitis C complications of hepatitis C hepatitis C signs and symptoms hepatitis C diagnosis hepatitis C treatment prevention of hepatitis C hepatitis D causes of hepatitis D hepatitis D risk factors signs or symptoms of hepatitis D diagnosis of hepatitis D treatment for hepatitis D prevention of hepatitis D hepatitis E causes of hepatitis E symptoms of hepatitis E hepatitis E diagnosis treatment for hepatitis E preventing hepatitis E
What're complications of alcoholic hepatitis?
Variceal hemorrhage: Acute variceal bleeding constitutes one of the most devastating emergencies, not only in gastroenterology but also in medicine at large. Resuscitation of the patient and protection of the airway are the 2 most important steps in the treatment of acute variceal bleeding. Cessation of the acute bleeding is usually achieved in more than 90% of patients, with the combination of interventional endoscopy (sclerotherapy or banding ligation) and the intravenous
infusion of pharmaceutical agents that lower the pressure within the portal system (somatostatin or one of its long-acting analogues, eg, octreotide). Alternatively and for patients who continue to bleed in spite of interventional endoscopy and drug therapy, more invasive options, such as balloon tamponade, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and emergency portal-caval shunt, may be used.
Hepatic encephalopathy: The development of encephalopathy in patients with alcoholic hepatitis is invariably associated with a grave prognosis. Treatment consists of close monitoring of the patient and the administration of lactulose or nonabsorbable antibiotics. Low energy or protein intake is not indicated, except transiently in severe cases. The use of benzodiazepine receptor antagonists (ie, flumazenil [Romazicon]) is still at an experimental stage. Rarely, rapidly progressive worsening of encephalopathy leading to deep coma may be associated with cerebral edema, as observed in fulminant hepatic failure. In selected instances, aggressive treatment with intracranial pressure monitoring and liver-assist devices may be considered.
Coagulopathy and thrombocytopenia: Profound hypoprothrombinemia may ensue in the course of severe alcoholic hepatitis, especially in patients with variceal bleeding. Administer fresh-frozen plasma to temporarily restore the depleted hepatic prothrombin stores. The value of parenteral administration of vitamin K is dubious because the hepatocytes are incapable of synthesizing new prothrombin. Platelet transfusions are not usually necessary to correct thrombocytopenia unless the patient is actively bleeding or undergoes an invasive procedure.
Ascites: Acute onset of ascites may develop in patients with alcoholic hepatitis, even in the absence of overtly decompensated liver disease and portal hypertension. The ascites is typically transudative, with a very low albumin concentration (<1 g/dL). In patients who are hemodynamically stable with normal renal function, bed rest and salt restriction may be sufficient to mobilize fluid. The addition of diuretics (typically spironolactone and furosemide) permits clearing of fluid in most patients. In some individuals who fail to respond to these measures, periodic large-volume paracentesis with intravenous albumin supplementation may be required. With continued abstinence, the salt-retaining tendency may improve; in many instances, the diuretics can be withdrawn safely after a period of months without any reaccumulation of ascites.
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: This condition may develop in patients with alcoholic hepatitis and ascites, especially in those with concomitant gastrointestinal bleeding. Following a confirmatory diagnostic paracentesis, broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy with a second- or third-generation cephalosporin is the treatment of choice.
Iron overload: Several histopathologic studies have shown that as many as 50% of patients with alcoholic liver disease have increased hepatic iron content compared with healthy controls. This excess deposition of iron may play a significant role in the progression of the alcoholic liver damage. Portosystemic shunts, especially the side-to-side variety, increase enormously the deposition of iron to the liver. Occasionally, this excessive iron deposition leads to a clinical and pathologic entity that is analogous to primary hemochromatosis. Attempts to treat alcoholic liver disease with phlebotomy to reduce iron overload have been hampered by the development of anemia, and no clear benefit has been observed.
More information on hepatitis
What is hepatitis? - Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis is characterized by jaundice, enlarged liver, fever, fatigue and abnormal liver function tests.
What causes hepatitis? - Causes of hepatitis including medication side effects, excessive alcohol, some toxic chemicals, disorders of the gall bladder or pancreas, and infections.
Who is at risk of hepatitis? - People who are at risk for developing hepatitis are workers in the health care professions, people with multiple sexual partners, intravenous drug users, and hemophiliacs.
How is hepatitis diagnosed? - Hepatitis is diagnosed during the active illness, based on the symptoms and an examination of the patient. The diagnosis is confirmed by blood samples.
What are the symptoms of hepatitis? - Symptoms of hepatitis vary depending on the cause of the illness. Symptoms of acute viral hepatitis may begin suddenly or develop gradually.
What're the treatment for hepatitis? - No medical treatment is available for acute viral hepatitis. Chronic hepatitis B can be treated with interferon alfa or lamivudine. Chronic hepatitis C can be treated with interferon alfa and ribavirin.
How to prevent hepatitis? - All objects contaminated by blood from patients with hepatitis B or C must be handled with special care. Travelers should be vaccinated against hepatitis A.
What is viral hepatitis? - Viral hepatitis is an infection of the liver that affects people from all walks of life regardless of age, race, gender, or sexual orientation.
What is autoimmune hepatitis? - Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the liver. Autoimmune hepatitis involves inflammation of the liver caused by rogue immune cells.
What causes autoimmune hepatitis? - The cause of autoimmune hepatitis is unknown. A person with autoimmune hepatitis has autoantibodies circulating in the bloodstream that cause the immune system to attack the liver.
What're the symptoms of autoimmune hepatitis? - Symptoms of autoimmune hepatitis include pain under the right ribs, fatigue and general discomfort, loss of appetite, nausea, sometimes vomiting and jaundice.
How is autoimmune hepatitis diagnosed? - Autoimmune hepatitis can be diagnosed with blood tests, such as liver function tests. Special X-ray tests may be needed.
What's the treatment for autoimmune hepatitis? - Not all patients with autoimmune hepatitis require treatment. Patients are treated with Prednisone including 6 mercaptopurine with or without steroids.
What is alcoholic hepatitis? - Alcoholic hepatitis is a precursor to chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Alcoholic hepatitis is distinct from cirrhosis caused by long term alcohol consumption.
What causes alcoholic hepatitis? - Alcoholic hepatitis usually occurs after years of excessive drinking. Malnutrition contributes to liver disease.
What are the symptoms of alcoholic hepatitis? - Symptoms of alcoholic hepatitis include abdominal tenderness, spider-like blood vessels in the skin, ascites, poor appetite.
How is alcoholic hepatitis diagnosed? - Diagnostic procedures for alcoholic hepatitis may include specific laboratory blood tests, ultrasound (sonography), and liver biopsy.
What is the treatment for alcoholic hepatitis? - Cessation or marked reduction in alcohol intake is critical in the treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. A multidisciplinary therapy is adopted.
What're complications of alcoholic hepatitis? - Complications of alcoholic hepatitis include variceal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, coagulopathy and thrombocytopenia, ascites.
What is hepatitis A? - Hepatitis A is a highly contagious liver infection caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). Hepatitis A is primarily spread by fecal-oral transmission.
What causes hepatitis A? - The hepatitis A virus is found in the stools (feces) of people with hepatitis A. Hepatitis A is primarily spread by fecal-oral transmission.
Who is at risk of hepatitis A? - The highest rates of hepatitis A are among children and young adults. Infected people can transmit it to others if they do not take strict sanitary precautions.
What are the symptoms of hepatitis A? - Symptoms of hepatitis A may include fever, nausea, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea, fatigue, abdominal pain, dark urine and appetite loss.
How is type A hepatitis diagnosed? - The patient will have to have blood tests to confirm the diagnosis of hepatitis A and to see whether your liver has been damaged.
What's the treatment for hepatitis A? - No specific treatment exists for hepatitis A. Initial therapy often consists of bed rest. Gammaglobulin may reduce the severity of the disease.
How to prevent hepatitis A? - Hepatitis A can be prevented by good hygiene and sanitation. Good hygiene in handling food and avoiding contamination of water supplies is important.
Who needs to be vaccinated against hepatitis A? - A vaccine to protect against hepatitis A is available for people who are at high risk of being infected, and for those with existing liver disease.
What is hepatitis B? - Hepatitis B is an inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus. The virus that causes hepatitis B is a member of the Hepadnavirus family.
What causes hepatitis B? - Hepatitis B virus is easily spread by direct contact with the blood or body fluids of an infected person. Hepatitis can interfere with normal liver functions.
Who is at the risk of hepatitis B? - Anyone of any age, race, nationality, sex or sexual orientation can be infected with HBV. Sexual activity is an important route for viral transmission of hepatitis B.
What're the symptoms of hepatitis B infection? - Symptoms of hepatitis B infection include nausea (upset stomach), loss of appetite, vomiting, fatigue, and abdominal cramps.
How is hepatitis B diagnosed? - Hepatitis B is diagnosed from the results of specific HBV blood tests (serologies) that reflect the various components of the HBV.
What's the treatment for hepatitis B? - There is no treatment for acute hepatitis B. Treatment of chronic hepatitis B may involve the use of medications such as the antiviral medication.
What's the treatment for chronic hepatitis B? - Treatment of chronic hepatitis B may involve the use of medications such as the antiviral medication alpha interferon.
How to prevent hepatitis B? - Hepatitis B is a preventable disease. Protective practices should be promoted to avoid the risk of transmitting the virus sexually or by contaminated blood.
What about the vaccinations for hepatitis B? - Vaccination against hepatitis B stimulates the body's immune defenses and protects most people. Vaccination reduces the risk for liver cancer.
What is Hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG)? - Hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) is a blood plasma product that can prevent hepatitis B if given within 14 days of an exposure to an infected individual.
What is hepatitis C? - Hepatitis C is a form of hepatitis (liver inflammation). Hepatitis C virus infects the liver and can cause hepatitis.
What causes hepatitis C? - Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the viruses, which together account for the vast majority of cases of viral hepatitis.
Who is at the risk of hepatitis C? - Hepatitis C is spread mainly by direct contact with the blood from an infected person. Other persons at risk include kidney dialysis patients.
What're the complications of hepatitis C? - Hepatitis C exacerbates the severity of underlying liver disease when it coexists with other hepatic conditions.
What're the signs and symptoms of hepatitis C? - Hepatitis C infection has no symptoms and becomes chronic, and can cause cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
How is hepatitis C diagnosed? - Hepatitis C infection is usually diagnosed in two steps using blood tests. Diagnostic tests for HCV are used to prevent infection through screening of donor blood and plasma.
What're the treatments for hepatitis C? - The treatment used for hepatitis C most often is a combination of two medicines, pegylated interferon and ribavirin.
How to prevent hepatitis C? - There is no vaccine against HCV. All precautions to prevent infection must be taken including screening and testing of blood and organ donors.
What is hepatitis D? - Hepatitis D or delta virus (HDV) is an infection of the liver caused by a defective virus (delta agent). The delta hepatitis virus (HDV) is an RNA virus.
What causes hepatitis D? - Hepatitis D or delta hepatitis is caused by the hepatitis delta virus (HDV), a defective RNA virus. HDV requires the help of a hepadnavirus.
Who is at risk of hepatitis D? - Individuals who are not infected with HBV, and have not been immunized against HBV, are at risk of infection with HBV with simultaneous or subsequent infection with HDV.
What are the signs or symptoms of hepatitis D? - Symptoms of hepatitis D include nausea, loss of appetite, joint pains, and tiredness, and jaundice.
How is hepatitis D diagnosed? - Hepatitis D infection may be diagnosed by detecting the antibody against the virus and measuring antibodies to delta antigen using ELISA.
What's the treatment for hepatitis D? - There is no effective antiviral therapy available for treatment of acute or chronic type D hepatitis. Liver transplantation has been helpful for treating fulminant acute and end-stage chronic hepatitis.
How to prevent hepatitis D? - Control of HDV infection is achieved by targeting HBV infections. The vaccine against hepatitis B also prevents delta hepatitis.
What is hepatitis E? - Hepatitis E is a contagious virus that causes acute hepatitis. Hepatitis E is also known as epidemic non-A, non-B hepatitis.
What causes hepatitis E? - Hepatitis E is caused by infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV), a nonenveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus.
What're the symptoms of hepatitis E? - Symptoms of hepatitis E include jaundice, anorexia, an enlarged, tender liver, abdominal pain and tenderness, nausea and vomiting.
How is hepatitis E diagnosed? - Diagnosis of hepatitis E is made by blood tests which detect elevated antibody levels of specific antibodies to hepatitis E in the body.
What's the treatment for hepatitis E? - Treatment for hepatitis E is to alleviate symptoms through bed rest, fluid replacement and ensuring there are strategies in place to prevent further transmission.
How to prevent hepatitis E? - The best ways to prevent hepatitis E are to provide safe drinking water and take precautions to use sterilized water and beverages when traveling.